Levels of Evidence

There are currently several classifications for levels of evidence. The following is a classification cited in the Journal of Neurosurgery (Editorial. JT Rutka).

Evidence Level Description
I i) Randomised controlled trial (RCT); ii) meta-analysis of randomised trials with homogeneous results
II i) Prospective comparative study (therapeutic); ii) meta-analysis of Level II studies or level I studies with inconsistent results
III i) Prospective cohort study; ii) case-control study; iii) meta-analysis of Level III studies
IV Case series
V i)_ Case reports; ii) expert opinion; iii) personal observation

Rutka JT. Editorial. Classes of evidence in neurosurgery. J Neurosurg., 2017; 126: 1747-1748


Last updated byGanealingam Narenthiran on January 16, 2021

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